Hardware is physical equipment of computer system. Hardware can be divided into two categories: Input Device and Output Device


Input device is computer device that is used to input data into computer system. Input device can be divided into some categories:

1. Text input devices

Such as keyboard, a device to input text and characters by depressing buttons (referred to as keys), similar to a typewriter. The most common English-language key layout is the QWERTY layout. Below is a picture of a keyboard using QWERTY layout. Other alternative layout is DVORAK layout.

Other alternatives keyboard layout is QWERTZ layout which is used in Germany and much of Central Europe, and AZERTY layout which is used France, Belgium, and some neighbouring countries.

2. Pointing devices

The most common pointing device is mouse. In computing, a mouse (plural mice or mouse devices) is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. Physically, a mouse consists of an object held under one of the user's hands, with one or more buttons, other elements, such as "wheels", or extra buttons.

The mouse's motion is typically translated into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface.

Other alternative of pointing device is trackball, a pointing device consisting of an exposed protruding ball housed in a socket that detects rotation about two axes. The trackball was invented by Tom Cranston and Fred Longstaff as part of the Royal Canadian Navy's DATAR system in 1952[1], eleven years before the mouse was invented. Below is a picture of a trackball.

3. Gaming devices

One example of gaming device is a joystick. A joystick is a general control device that consists of a handheld stick that pivots around one end, to detect angles in two or three dimensions

4. Image, Video input devices

There are two common input devices in this type. First is Image scanner, a device that provides input by analyzing images, printed text, handwriting, or an object. Below is a picture of image scanner.

Second type is a webcam. Webcams are video capturing devices connected to computers or computer networks, often using USB or, if they connect to networks, ethernet or Wi-Fi. They are well-known for their low manufacturing costs and flexible applications.
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